İngilizce – To be -Present and Past am-is-are-was-were nedir? hangisi ne zaman kullanılır? (yardımcı fiiler)

“TO BE” etrafımızdaki nesneleri NİTELEMEK, ÖZELLİKLERİNİ, YERLERİNİ VE KONUMLARINI BELİRTMEK İSTEDİĞIMIZDE kullanacağımız temel fiildir. To be cümleleri kesinlikle EYLEM CÜMLESİ DEĞİLDİRLER.İçinde hareket, ivme içeren hiçbir yapıyı anlatamazlar.

 

To BeKısa ŞekilÖrnek Cümle
I amI'mI'm from Turkey.
You areYou'reYou're Ayşe.
He isHe'sHe's twenty years old.
She isShe'sShe's a nurse.
It isIt'sIt's a big dog.
We areWe'reWe're intelligent.
You areYou'reYou're students.
They areThey'reThey're married.

“Are” birden fazla nesneler, canlılar ..  için. “Is” ise birden fazla olmayan tekil nesne veya canlı için kullanılır.

Am, Is, Are şimdiki zaman için kullanılır, yani geçmiş zaman için kullanılamazlar. Mesela Türkçe örnek verirsek; Gidiyorum,Geliyorum,Yiyorum,Koşuyorum gibi kelimelerle şimdiki zamandan bahsedersiniz ama Gidiyordum,Giderim,Koşarım,Koşuyordum dediğiniz zaman şimdi koştuğunuz ya da gittiğinizi belirtmediğinden şimdiki zaman olarak sayılmazlar.

Şahıs ZamiriTo BeÖrnek cümle
Iam notfrom Portugal.
Youare notYou are not Italian.
Heis notHe is not thirty years old.
Sheis notShe is not a secretary.
Itis notIt is not a small cat.
Weare notWe are not stupid.
Youare notYou are not teachers.
Theyare notThey are not single.
Soru ŞekliKısa CevapKısa Cevap
Am I intelligent?Yes, you are.No, you aren't
Are you a student?Yes, I am.No, I am not.
Is he a pilot? Yes, he is. No, he isn't.
Is she from Spain? Yes, she is.No, she isn't.
Is it a big house? Yes, it is.No, it isn't.
Are we ready? Yes, we are. No, we aren't.
Are you doctors?Yes, we are.No, we aren't.
Are they rich? Yes, they areNo, they aren't.

TO BE – PAST (was-were) – Geçmiş Zaman Olarak

İngilizce was-were, TO BE FİİLİNİN GEÇMIŞ ZAMANDAKİ KARŞILIĞIDIR. am-is-are yardımcı fiillerinin GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN halleridir.

Şahıs Zamiri To BeÖrnek Cümle
IwasI was tired this morning.
YouwereYou were very good.
HewasHe was the best in his class.
ShewasShe was late for work.
ItwasIt was a sunny day.
WewereWe were at home.
They wereThey were happy with their test resul

Mesela She, He ve It gibi şahıs zamirlerde asla “were” kullanılmaz. Yerine “was” kullanılır.

They ve You gibi şahıs zamirleri kullanırken yanına “was” değil, “were” kullanılır.

TO BE- PAST  Negative (OLUMSUZ ŞEKLİ)
Şahıs ZamiriTO BEÖrnek Cümle
Iwas notI was not tired this morning.
Youwere notYou were not crazy.
Hewas notHe was not married.
Shewas notShe was not famous.
Itwas notIt was not hot yesterday.
Wewere notWe were not invited.
Theywere notThey were not friends.

I am a doctor. (Ben bir doktorum.) (GENİŞ ZAMAN ve şimdiki zamanı kapsar)

I was a doctor. (Ben bir doktordum) (GEÇMİŞ ZAMANI kapsar.)

They are at home. (Onlar evde.) (Geniş zaman ve şimdiki zamanı kapsar)

They were at home. (Onlar evdeydiler.) (Geçmiş zamanı kapsar.)

There was a letter for you this morning. (Bu sabah size bir mektup vardı.)

There was some important news on the radio. (Radyoda önemli birkaç haber vardı.)

Jack lost his job yesterday. He was angry. (Jack dün işini kaybetti. Kızgındı.)

TO BE- PAST Questions (SORU ŞEKLİ)
Affirmative Örnek Cümle
I was late Was I late?
You were sick.Were you sick?
He was surprised.Was he surprised?
She was from Italy. Was she from Italy?
It was a big house.Was it a big house?
We were readyWere we ready?
They were busy.Were they busy?

Was Maria at the college last year? (Maria geçen sene kolejde miydi?)

Who was at the college last year? (Geçen sene kim kolejdeydi?)

Was Orwell in India two years ago? (Orwell iki sene önce Hindistan’da mıydı?)

English exercise “To be present and past”

My parents are not at home. Where is the bank?

Are you a teacher?

Who is this girl?

Were you alone or with your wife?

We were angry not to meet them.

You were very angry.

They were very late.

Where was Matt at ten o’clock

Were there a lot of people in the snack bar?

What was the weather like at midnight?

Was Matt in his cabin?

Was Loren good at school?

She was so-so.

Was Margaret good at school? No, she wasn’t

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